Akkadian Civilization: Culture, Art & Religion ... Social Structure. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Anyone can earn ), and there are references to campaigns against powerful states in the north, possibly including Ebla. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. just create an account. Cities were protected with high walls to keep invaders away as it was a period of constant invasion from other empires. An error occurred trying to load this video. The Akkadians were Semitic nomads, originating from the Arabian Peninsula, who began to migrate towards the Fertile Crescent at the time of the development of the first Mesopotamian city-states.. (Some scholars have attributed it to Ur-Nammu’s son Shulgi.) To prevent possible uprisings by conquered groups, Assyria practiced a policy of deportation. However, from that point on until the beginning of Ibbi-Sin’s reign, or for a period of 50 years at least, the sources give the impression of peace enjoyed by a country that lived undisturbed by encroachments from abroad. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. 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The upper class included government officials, scribes, and priests, and the king was considered a high priest, so the lesser priests acted as his trusted advisers. The Assyrian military was also highly skilled in siege warfare, even going as far as to divert a town's water sources to speed up a surrender. Before its catastrophic end under Ibbi-Sin, the state of Ur III does not seem to have suffered setbacks and rebellions as grievous as those experienced by Akkad. Under Ur-Nammu and his successors Shulgi, Amar-Su’ena, Shu-Sin, and Ibbi-Sin, this dynasty lasted for a century (c. 2112–c. Although he resided in Ur, another important centre was in Nippur, whence—according to the prevailing ideology—Enlil, the chief god in the Sumerian state pantheon, had bestowed on Shulgi the royal dignity. Utu-hegal was a brother of the Ur-Nammu who founded the 3rd dynasty of Ur (“3rd” because it is the third time that Ur is listed in the Sumerian king list). The fourth major ethnic group was the Hurrians, who were especially important in northern Mesopotamia and in the vicinity of modern Kirkūk. While clearly differing linguistically from Akkadian, the Amorite language, which can be reconstructed to some extent from more than a thousand proper names, is fairly closely related to the so-called Canaanite branch of the Semitic languages, of which it may in fact represent an older form. Under Akkad, the Akkadian language acquired a literary prestige that made it the equal of Sumerian. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. The third group, first mentioned under Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad, are the Amorites. The neighbouring state of Lagash enjoyed a century of complete independence, between Shar-kali-sharri and the beginning of Ur III, during which time it showed expansionist tendencies and had widely ranging trade connections. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. His chief deputy served as the commander-in-chief of the military. This was reflected in how successful they were at running the country. Here Are 6 Things to Do to Feel More Confident, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. Ancient Babylonia - Social Hierarchy There were several levels in the social hierarchy with the king at the top and the slaves at the bottom. The original was most likely a stela, but all that is known of the Code of Ur-Nammu so far are Old Babylonian copies. After years of being controlled by Babylonia, a warlike people called the Assyrians took control of the northern area of Mesopotamia. During their reign, they became known for their centralized government rule and feared for their military strength. Nor is there yet a serviceable typology for them; only when that has been drawn up will it be possible to write a book entitled “The Economic System of Ur III.” Represented in the main by contracts (loans, leases of temple land, the purchase of slaves, and the like), the “private” sector makes up only a small part of this mass of textual material. By eliminating the state of Lagash, Ur-Nammu caused the coveted overseas trade (Dilmun, Magan, and Meluhha) to flow through Ur. The nobles, who were business owners and merchants, were also part of the upper class. At times, you may have to rephrase some of the sentences from your research so they fit your paragraph better.Hang in there girl, a little revision, fine tuning things is all you need. 2110). As a matter of fact, the wholly negative opinion that even some modern historians have of the Gutians is based solely on a few stereotyped statements by the Sumerians and Akkadians, especially on the victory inscription of Utu-hegal of Uruk (c. 2116–c. The empire was connected by a network of roads, known as the King's Road, which aided in the speed of messengers and the army. As evidenced by a new royal title that he was the first to bear—that of “king of Sumer and Akkad”—he had built up a state that comprised at least the southern part of Mesopotamia. | 22 I know you are busy with basketball. The governors had full political control at the local level. While the kings ruled and the soldiers waged wars, a class system among all other people developed. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Two factors contributed to its downfall: the invasion of the nomadic Amurrus (Amorites), called Martu by the Sumerians, from the northwest, and the infiltration of the Gutians, who came, apparently, from the region between the Tigris and the Zagros Mountains to the east. The delegates acted as advisers to the rulers of these allied peoples. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. The reason is not clear, but it is conceivable that the later, purely Akkadian population felt a closer identification with Akkad than with a state that to a large extent still made use of the Sumerian language. Comprising 1,363 lines, the text is second in length only to Eannatum’s Stele of Vultures among the literary works of the Sumerians up to that time. Thus the reign of the five kings of Akkad may be considered one of the most productive periods of Mesopotamian history. Food Supply, Art, Writing, Technology, Religion, Social Structure, and Government Officials are all apart of Akkadian lives.
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